Shoulder Joint Replacement

Las Vegas’ Orthopedic Shoulder Specialists

What is Shoulder Joint Replacement

Total shoulder replacement surgery relieves symptoms of severe shoulder pain and disability due to arthritis. In this surgery, the damaged articulating parts of the shoulder joint are removed and replaced with prostheses. Replacement of the humeral head and the socket is called a total shoulder replacement.

Shoulder Anatomy

The shoulder is a highly movable body joint that allows various arm movements. It is a ball and socket joint where the head of the humerus (upper arm bone) articulates with the socket of the scapula (shoulder blade), which is called the glenoid. The two articulating surfaces of the bones are covered with cartilage, which prevents friction between the moving bones. The cartilage is lubricated by synovial fluid. Tendons and ligaments around the shoulder joint provide strength and stability.

What is Arthritis?

When the cartilage is damaged, the two bones rub against each other, causing joint pain, swelling, and stiffness. This condition is called arthritis. There are many types of arthritis. Osteoarthritis (wear-and-tear brought about by aging) and rheumatoid arthritis (autoimmune disease) are two forms of arthritis.

What are the indicators for Shoulder Joint Replacement?

Total shoulder joint replacement is a surgery indicated for osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis when medication, injections, physical therapy, and activity changes do not help relieve pain. Your doctor recommends surgery when you have the following symptoms:

  • Severe shoulder pain that restricts daily activities
  • Moderate to severe pain during rest
  • Weakness and/or loss of motion

Preparation for Shoulder Joint Replacement

Your doctor will evaluate your condition thoroughly to decide whether total shoulder replacement is a good option.

Your doctor will review your medical history and perform a physical examination of your shoulder to assess the extent of mobility and pain. Imaging tests such as X-rays or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) may also be performed.

Shoulder Joint Replacement Procedure

The surgery is performed under regional or general anesthesia. An incision is made over the affected shoulder, and the underlying muscles are separated to expose the shoulder joint. The surgery may be an open surgery, where a large incision is made, or minimally invasive, where small incisions are made to insert an arthroscope (a thin tube with a camera and light source) and surgical tools.

The upper arm bone (humerus) is separated from the glenoid socket of the shoulder bone. The arthritic or damaged humeral head is cut, and the humerus bone is hollowed out and filled with cement. A metal ball with a stem is gently press-fit into the humerus.

Next, the arthritic part of the socket is prepared. The plastic glenoid component is fixed in the shoulder bone.

After the artificial components are implanted, the joint capsule is stitched, and the wound is closed.

Postoperative Care for Shoulder Joint Replacement

After the surgery, medications and antibiotics are prescribed to control pain and prevent infection. Your arm may be secured in a sling or cast. The rehabilitation program includes physical therapy, which is started soon after the surgery and is very important to strengthen and provide mobility to the shoulder. You may be able to perform gentle daily activities two to six weeks after surgery.

Risks and Complications of Shoulder Joint Replacement

As with any major surgery, there may be potential risks involved:

  • Anesthetic complications such as nausea, dizziness, and vomiting
  • Infection of the wound
  • Dislocation, requiring repeat surgery
  • Damage to blood vessels, nerves, or muscles
  • Failure to relieve pain
  • Pulmonary embolism
  • Wear and tear of the prosthesis

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