What is Knee Arthritis?
The joint surface is covered by a smooth articular surface that allows pain-free movement in the joint. Arthritis is a general term covering numerous conditions where the joint surface or cartilage wears out. This surface can wear out for several reasons; the definite cause is often unknown. Arthritis often affects the knee joint. When the articular cartilage wears out, the bone ends rub on one another and cause pain. The most common type of arthritis is osteoarthritis. It occurs with aging and use.
Causes of Knee Arthritis
Numerous conditions can cause arthritis, but the exact cause is often unknown. In general, but not always, it affects people as they age (osteoarthritis). Other causes include:
- Trauma (fracture)
- Increased stress, such as overuse and overweight
- Infection of the bone
- Connective tissue disorders
- Inactive lifestyle and obesity (overweight). Your weight is the most critical link between diet and arthritis, as being overweight burdens your hips, knees, ankles, and feet.
- Inflammation (rheumatoid arthritis)
Symptoms of Knee Arthritis
Knee arthritis causes pain and decreased mobility of the knee joint. The cartilage lining is thinner than usual or completely absent. In the arthritic knee, an absent joint space shows on X-ray. In the normal knee, there is a common joint space. The capsule of the arthritic knee is swollen. The degree of cartilage damage and inflammation varies with the type and stage of arthritis. Bone spurs or excessive bone can also build up around the edges of the joint. These factors make the arthritic knee stiff and limit activities due to pain or fatigue.
Doctors diagnose knee arthritis with a medical history, a physical examination, and X-rays of the affected joint. During the physical examination, your doctor will examine the affected joint for swelling, pain, and tenderness and assess the joint’s range of motion. An X-ray of the knee may show a loss of joint space and bone spur formation.
There is no blood test for knee arthritis.
There is no known cure for knee arthritis. However, several treatments and lifestyle modifications can help you ease your pain and symptoms. The treatment aims to reduce pain, improve joint movement, and prevent further damage to the joint. The treatment of knee arthritis involves:
Medications may include different classes, such as anti-inflammatory drugs, steroid injections, artificial joint fluid injections, and other drugs.
Some of the lifestyle modifications include:
- A moderate exercise program
- Use of heat or cold treatments
- Eating a healthy and well-balanced diet
- Getting adequate rest
- Losing weight
- Protecting your joints with the use of assistive devices such as splints or braces to support the weakened joints
- Physical therapy: Your physical therapist will teach you exercises to keep joints flexible and improve muscle strength.
- Surgery: Surgery is usually considered if non-surgical treatment fails to provide relief. Joint replacement surgery is considered an option when the pain is so severe that it affects your ability to carry out everyday activities.